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What Are the Main Topics of Economics?

Even if mastering the fundamentals of economic theory isn’t regarded as being as crucial as managing a family budget or being a proficient driver, the factors that drive the study of economics influence every aspect of our lives. Economics, at its core, seeks to provide light on the mental processes behind consumer decisions.

Scarcity, supply and demand, costs and benefits, and incentives are four fundamental economic ideas that may help explain various human actions.

Key conclusions

  • Scarcity, supply and demand, costs and benefits and incentives are four fundamental economic ideas that may explain various human actions.
  • Scarcity describes the fundamental economic issue that there aren’t enough resources in the world to satisfy everyone’s endless needs, which causes individuals to choose how to distribute a few resources best.
  • Humans continuously choose actions based on their costs, rewards, and the incentives provided by many options since resources are limited.


Whether or not they are aware, everyone is familiar with the concept of scarcity since we have all felt its impacts. The fundamental economic issue that there aren’t enough resources in the world to satisfy everyone’s endless needs are explained by scarcity. People are compelled by this fact to choose the most effective means of allocating resources to ensure that as many of their most excellent objectives as possible are realized.

Demand and Supply

Supply and demand are the driving forces in a market system. If many individuals desire to purchase beer, the demand for beer is said to be strong. Consequently, utilizing wheat to create beer rather than flour allows you to sell beer for a higher price and generate more money overall.

Theoretically, this may result in a scenario where more individuals start brewing beer and, after a few cycles of production, there is so much beer available—the supply of beer increases—that the price of beer decreases.

On a fundamental level, the idea of supply and demand helps explain why the famous product from the previous year is half as expensive the following year, despite this extreme and excessively simplified example.

Costs and Advantages

The theory of rational choice (and rational expectations), based on economics assignment online, is connected to the concept of costs and benefits. When economists refer to rational behaviour, they indicate that individuals want to make decisions that optimize the benefits to costs ratio.

Breweries will recruit more workers to produce more beer if there is a significant demand for it, but only if the salary of the beer and the volume of beer sold make up for the higher expenses of their wages and the ingredients required to brew more beer. The consumer will similarly buy the best beer they can afford, even if it doesn’t taste the best.

Other decisions that are unrelated to financial transactions can also use the idea of costs and benefits. University students regularly do cost-benefit evaluations by concentrating on particular courses they have judged more crucial for their performance. In some cases, this even entails reducing the time individuals spend studying for classes they deem unnecessary.

Although economics often presume that individuals are logical, a lot of human actions are actually quite emotional and do not optimize our profit. For instance, the advertising industry preys on people’s propensity for irrational behaviour. Commercials aim to stir our emotions and deceive us into thinking highly of a particular product.

It’s all about the incentives.

You’ve offered a reward—or incentive—to boost the chance of a specific outcome, whether you’re a parent, supervisor, teacher, or someone else with supervision responsibilities.

Economic incentives help explain how supply and demand laws drive producers to deliver the things that customers desire and consumers to practise resource conservation. A good’s market price rises in response to increased customer demand, incentivizing producers to create more of the commodity to profit from the higher price. On the other hand, when producers are forced to reduce supply due to a shortage of raw materials or inputs for a particular commodity, costs rise, and manufacturers increase their prices. As a result, consumers are compelled to limit their use of that good and save it for their most important purposes.

When rewards are appropriately matched to company objectives, remarkable advantages may result. Profit sharing, performance-based incentives, and employee equity ownership are some of these procedures. But if the criterion for judging whether an incentive has been satisfied diverges from the initial objective, these incentives may go astray. For instance, poorly designed performance bonuses have motivated certain executives to take actions that temporarily boost the company’s financial outcomes to qualify for the bonus. These actions ultimately proved harmful to the company’s long-term health.

The Dark Science Is Economics

One explanation for why economics is frequently referred to as the “dreary science” is because scarcity is the fundamental concept that supports all economics. People continuously make decisions based on the costs and advantages of various options. On a personal level, scarcity means that we are forced to make decisions based on the rewards we receive for various actions. The effects of millions of individuals making decisions on the market result in the dynamics of supply and demand.

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